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Table 1 Characteristics of Cuban-Americans by diabetes status in a study of depression symptoms and diet quality

From: Healthy Eating Index scores associated with symptoms of depression in Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study

  Cuban Americans  
  with type 2 diabetes without type 2 diabetes PValue
  n = 183 n = 173  
Age (years) 65.4 ± 11.8 62.9 ± 11.3 0.042
Gender (%)    0.029
   Male 38.3 32.9  
   Female 61.7 67.1  
BMI (Kg/m2) 31.6 ± 6.5 30.0 ± 5.0 0.012
Duration of diabetes (years) 9.3 ± 9.5 0 < 0.001
Total calories intake 2166.8 ± 795.9 2358.9 ± 770.2 0.021
Employment status (%)    0.006
   Not Working 72.1 58.4  
   Working 27.9 41.6  
Marital Status (%)    0.029
   Not Married 50.8 39.3  
   Married 49.2 60.7  
Education (%)    0.166
   < High School 47.0 54.3  
   ≥ High School 53.0 45.7  
A1C % 7.6 ± 1.6 5.9 ± 0.4 < 0.001
Depression medication (%)    0.719
   No 88.5 87.3  
   Yes 11.5 12.7  
BDI Scores 10.6 ± 10.1 8.1 ± 6.8 0.008
HEI-05 57.8 ± 8.9 53.3 ± 7.8 < 0.001
HEI-05 median (%)    < 0.001
   ≤55.6 38.3 61.8  
   > 55.6 61.7 38.2  
  1. Data are % or mean ± standard deviation (SD).
  2. BMI = Body mass index, A1C = glycated hemoglobin, HEI-05 = Healthy Eating Index-2005, BDI = Beck Depression Inventory.