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Table 2 Body weights, Fe intakes, hemoglobin maintenance efficiency (HME), and total body Hb Fe content in chicken fed the tested diets from d 0 to d 561.

From: Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

Treat* Day 0 Day 7 Day 14 Day 21 Day 28
Body weight (g)
High Fe 42.5a ± 2.1 107.6a ± 3.9 214.6a ± 5.8 427.8a ± 16.8 684.3a ± 21.9
Low Fe 42.9a ± 2.6 103.9a ± 4.3 204.1a ± 9.1 398.7a ± 18.8 599.9b ± 26.1
Feed intake (kg/d)2      
High Fe - 0.02a ± 0.005 0.07a ± 0.008 0.07a ± 0.01 0.08a ± 0.01
Low Fe - 0.02a ± 0.006 0.06a ± 0.007 0.07a ± 0.009 0.08a ± 0.01
Fe intake (mg) 3
High Fe - 9.6a ± 0.7 33.8a ± 1.5 58.7a ± 4.9 87.6a ± 6.5
Low Fe - 7.0b ± 0.5 23.3b ± 1.8 44.4b ± 3.8 65.6b ± 4.9
Hemoglobin (g/L)
High Fe 90.50a ± 8.3 85.85a ± 4.0 79.60a ± 4.5 80.14a ± 6.5 75.50a ± 3.1
Low Fe 90.70a ± 8.7 78.40a ± 4.7 76.10a ± 3.7 78.40a ± 2.3 73.71a ± 2.3
Total body Hb Fe content (mg)4
High Fe 1.08a ± 0.06 2.62a ± 0.18 4.83a ± 0.31 9.77a ± 0.58 15.04a ± 0.65
Low Fe 1.11a ± 0.08 2.36a ± 0.24 4.58a ± 0.29 8.50b ± 0.35 12.58b ± 1.03
Hemoglobin maintenance efficiency (HME, %)5
High Fe - 16.0a ± 1.9 11.0a ± 0.9 14.7a ± 1.0 15.9a ± 0.7
Low Fe - 18.5a ± 3.8 15.1b ± 1.2 16.7b ± 0.7 17.6a ± 1.3
  1. a, b Within a column, means without a common letter are significantly different, P < 0.05.
  2. 1Values are means ± SEM, n = 12.
  3. 2Values are mean daily feed intakes for the 7 days proceeding the day designated in the column heading.
  4. 3Values are mean ± SEM (cumulative weekly from day 0)
  5. 4,5Fe bioavailability was calculated as hemoglobin maintenance efficiency (HME) (7,10-14):
  6. Where Hb-Fe = total body hemoglobin Fe. Hb Fe was calculated from hemoglobin concentrations and estimates of blood volume based on body weight (a blood volume of 85 mL per kg body weight is assumed) (10,11,14,23):
  7. * The experimental diets: 1. "High Fe": 60% colored bean diet (54ppm Fe); 2. "Low Fe": 60% colored bean diet (42ppm Fe).