The results of these experiments show that moderate consumption of red wine significantly altered redox balance in the circulation of both young and old individuals. Red wine consumption increased serum antioxidant capacity and decreased concentrations of plasma malondialdehyde and whole blood glutathione in both age groups. In contrast, concentrations of malondialdehyde, glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity were significantly different between young and old control groups. Old subjects had greater concentrations of whole blood glutathione and lower concentrations of plasma malondialdehyde when compared to young subjects. Furthermore, total antioxidant capacity in serum was lower in the old group when compared to the young group. Red wine consumption did not significantly alter plasma lipid profiles and there were no significant differences between young and old individuals.
Oxidative stress is the consequence of an imbalance of oxidants and antioxidants. Studies show that a high consumption of antioxidants can decrease levels of oxidative stress and decrease the incidence of CVD . In the current study TAS increased after red wine consumption these results strongly suggest that in the presence of red wine consumption, total antioxidant status has the ability to increase significantly. This increase was slightly more prominent in older individuals who increased their TAS 16% after consuming the red wine for two weeks compared to the younger individuals who increased 7%, despite the fact that young individuals had higher resting concentrations of total antioxidant status. Our results are also shared in a study by Fernandez-Pachon and colleagues , who eluded that antioxidant values determined before wine intake were statistically different from those measured 30 minutes after consumption. Our study however, extends beyond Fernandez-Pachon's by advocating that the consistent consumption of wine may offer the ability to significantly enhance total antioxidant status over a longer period. This sustained elevation of TAS further confirms that the lower incidence of CVD in populations who consume red wine on a regular basis  is due to an increase in circulating oxidative protection. In addition it also suggests that a lifetime of red wine consumption is not needed to achieve a sustained increase in circulating oxidative protection, two weeks is long enough to boost TAS.
To further determine the extent of positive effects associated with and increase in TAS we measured MDA, as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and found that there were significant reductions in MDA after red wine consumption for both young and older volunteers. This suggests that the consumption of red wine was also effective in protecting circulating lipid systems from oxidative damage in young and older volunteers. Whereas, young and older groups experienced no changes in MDA values without red wine. These results indicate that MDA as a marker of circulating lipid oxidation was significantly reduced, thereby representing a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation in participants who consumed the red wine. Our results are complimented by studies published by Fuhrman , which show that the propensity of lipids to undergo peroxidation was reduced by 20% in correspondence with the consumption of 400 mL/day of red wine for 2 weeks. Moreover, our results suggest that the antioxidant effect of dietary red wine on plasma lipid peroxidation could be related to the elevation of polyphenol concentration in plasma. Interestingly, the young group had higher levels of MDA compared with the older group prior to red wine consumption. This was an unexpected result, as theoretically it is believed that oxidative damage such as lipid peroxidation increases with age .
In addition to measuring TAS and MDA in the current study the levels of whole blood GSH were measured and it was found that red wine consumption decreased GSH in young and older volunteers. However, there were no significant reductions in GSH levels in the absence of red wine. This would suggest, that a reduction in GSH might be due to it being down regulated as a result of the increased level antioxidants derived from red wine eliminating additional reactive oxygen species. In addition, it would appear that the level of protection conferred was greatest amongst younger participants which demonstrated a 55% reduction in GSH levels compared to older participants who had a 44% reduction in GSH, after both groups consumed red wine. It was expected and consequently demonstrated in this study, that the older population groups have a higher resting GSH content compared with their younger counterparts. This data may be interpreted with respect to the free-radical theory of ageing, in which endogenous oxidative damage occurs at higher frequencies with older age . Data from Fenech et al  showed that the protective effects against DNA damage could not be readily explained by the phenolic content of the red wine, however, in a subsequent study by Greenrod et al  their data suggested that the non-alcoholic fraction of red wine protects DNA from oxidative damage, however, this effect is not solemnly explained by the antioxidant catechin.
No significant difference in age and BMI between young or old volunteers was observed before or after red wine consumption. This data indicates that potential changes in BMI had no influence on interpretation of the data. As the results of this present study indicate, no significant changes in plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and serum glucose were evidenced before and after red wine consumption (Table 2). Our data provides evidence that corresponds to research by Akcay and colleagues  whose findings suggest there is no significant difference in LDL blood levels with respect to the consumption of a cabernet sauvignon red wine.
From our data, relationships may be draw with respect to the consumption of red wine. We found that both young and older volunteers demonstrated significant decreases in GSH and MDA and this was proportional to the serum increases in total antioxidant status. This data signifies the relationship between a reduction in antioxidant levels and lipid oxidation and an increase in antioxidant status, with the consumption of 400 ml/day of red wine for 2 weeks. This finding is important with respect to the long-term implications of red wine consumption. It suggests that the consistent consumption of red wine may confer prolonged oxidative protection, as opposed to conflicting research, which suggests plasma polyphenols only peak at 3 hours post consumption . Our study controlled for these factors, where participants abstained from consuming any alternative alcoholic sources, grapes or grape products during the course of the study, as well as all blood samples were taken after 12–14 hrs fasting. Our findings shed further light on the nature of the beneficial effects of red wine consumption and gives supporting evidence for the recommendation that red wine provides protective effects for CVD. Also, drinking pattern and not just the total amount of red wine consumed is important in the association between intake and protection.