Aging has long been portrayed as an unpredictable, indiscriminate process of degeneration in cognitive and physical function. This harsh view has been challenged by our modern understanding of the role that age-related increases in inflammation play in chronic disease and aging . It now appears that physiological well-being at advanced age may be influenced by the everyday anti-inflammatory habits of the individual . Simple lifestyle choices, such as physical exercise and dietary patterns, may address chronic systemic inflammation and improve long-term health and function [3, 4]. We now appreciate that inflammatory cytokines may be influenced by habitual behavior; this includes Interleukin-6 (IL-6), an inflammatory cytokine strongly associated with cognitive impairment , functional decline, loss of strength, sarcopenia, and mortality . Indeed, exercise and nutrition may attenuate even the processes of aging that were once considered inevitable, such as declines in cognitive function, mood, sarcopenia, quality of life . Our modern concept therefore suggests that although the processes of aging and inflammation certainly cannot be halted, it may be possible to extend cognitive and physical function long-term through appropriate diet and exercise practices.
While exercise acts as an important anti-inflammatory aid, the ability to recover from exercise in and of itself may be subject to the challenges of age-related inflammation. Aging is accompanied by increased free radical formation and circulatory changes that exacerbate inflammatory processes. This inflammatory cascade may include an increase in IL-6 - ordinarily an important component of muscle hypertrophy, but an inhibitor of muscle recovery at elevated concentrations . IL-6 promotes chronic inflammation  and plays a large role in joint inflammation [10, 11]. IL-6 contributes to the production of ACT  and together, the two inflammatory markers are associated with a two- to three-fold risk of reduced muscle strength in older adults . At the same time, upstream hormonal signal processes, which are vital in gene expression and protein synthesis for both contractile and non-contractile proteins in skeletal muscle, also decline with age. The recovery of muscle and tissue slows with age, repair and remodeling of muscle is compromised, and inflammatory joint pain may persist (even in the absence of rheumatoid arthritis). Osteoporosis becomes a increasing concern, particularly in women; with age, the incidence of falling and the severity of fall-related injury increases dramatically, resulting in increased nursing home admissions  and hip fractures that significantly increase risk of mortality . Furthermore, vascular endothelial dysfunction (as demonstrated by reduced brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD)) has been reported in healthy, sedentary middle-aged and older adults [16, 17], and is regarded as an early manifestation of CVD . Brachial artery FMD is inversely related to plasma markers of inflammation  and inflammation-induced oxidative stress potentially mediates endothelial dysfunction  in middle-aged and older adults (thus interventions that improve endothelial homeostasis may have important clinical implications to reduce CVD-related morbidity and mortality). Combined, these factors result in progressive functional limitations and disability. As such, while exercise is an important factor in fighting inflammation, aging individuals may need additional nutritional support to combat the effect of inflammation on the body, improve recovery from and adaptation to exercise, and therefore permit them to remain physically active with age.
Given the importance of chronic inflammation and recovery to health, a number of studies have found that certain nutritional supplements, in combination with a healthy, balanced diet and exercise, may allow for improved recovery and anti-inflammatory action . Branched chain amino acids (BCAA), for example, have analgesic properties  and may inhibit the breakdown of muscle protein and enhance muscle protein synthesis ; this has been particularly shown with leucine supplementation . Taurine, also amino acid, acts as a powerful anti-inflammatory that may reduce IL-6 production . Green tea, a source of polyphenols, has chelating , anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-mutagenic, anti-diabetic, and hypocholesterolemic properties . It may help in cancer prevention, weight loss or management, stroke prevention, and prevention of cardiovascular disease . Quercetin, another anti-inflammatory aid , may inhibit mast cell activation , serve as a psychostimulant, and improve physiological performance, health, and disease resistance . Cat's claw or uncaria tomentosa, a wood-like vine, is another powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory . In a separate role, B-vitamins have limited anti-inflammatory properties but are cofactors, crucial in metabolism, may increase energy (especially if diet is poor), and may improve mood and stress [33, 34]. Therefore, a number of substances exist that improve age-related recovery and inflammation in distinct and independent ways.
While each of the nutritional substances noted impart powerful physiological effects, each act independently and individually lacks the benefits that others may possess. Thus, the multifaceted impact of inflammation and aging on exercise performance may benefit from a multidimensional supplement that includes each of these substances in a single supplement. Although the ingredients independently have been shown to contribute to amino acid signaling, reduction of inflammation, and recovery, it is not currently known if a combined supplement would benefit recovery, joint health, remodeling of muscle, and energy in healthy individuals attempting to remain physically active. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a multi-nutrient supplement on physical performance, endothelial function, fatigue, mood, and other recovery factors in active men and women from the ages 40-70 years.