Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of the family, particularly the father's, seem to influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tuscan children.
Many studies in the field of obesity in school-aged children have emphasized the role of the family. Parent's genetic and behaviour factors, which are, consciously or unconsciously, transmitted to their children, are essential to explaining the nutritional status of these children [20, 21].
In the present study we should emphasise that weight and height used to calculate the BMI, are directly measured in children while parents' weight and height are self-reported.
The parents' obesity is certainly one of the most important factors in favouring an increase of the children's weight and obesity [8, 22]. In fact, the relationship between the children and the parents' BMI is significant. The parents are also responsible for the quality and the availability of food within the home and, for this reason, if their food habits are incorrect those of their children will follow . A study by Wardle J. et al.  compared the food and activity preferences and lifestyles of children, independently of their BMI classes, from obese and lean families. The results showed that: "Children from the obese/overweight families had a higher preference for fatty foods in a taste test, a lower liking for vegetables, and a more 'overeating-type' eating style. They also had a stronger preference for sedentary activities, and spent more time in sedentary pastimes. There were no differences in speed of eating or reported frequency of intake of high-fat foods".
The analysis of educational levels shows that there is an inverse relationship between the parents' educational level (considered both together and separately) with overweight and obesity in 8- to 9-year-old children in Tuscany, similar to what has been found in other studies in Northern Italian pre-pubertal age children . In particular, regarding the educational level, the influence of the father is stronger than that of the mother. In fact, analysing the parents together, among the various combinations that support this assumption, one is particularly evident; in the case of the mother at a medium and the father at a high educational level, only 2.8% of the children were obese, whilst in the opposite case, with the father at a medium and the mother at a low level, the percentage rose to 10.6%. If we evaluate the parents' educational levels separately, we find that fathers have a stronger influence on the prevalence of obesity in their children (PR of obesity in children born from fathers with low educational level is 2.1; category of reference: high educational level). These considerations are coherent with previous studies on the association between diet and physical activity with parent's social economic level.
It has been demonstrated that the diet of groups in a low socio-economic level is characterized by cheap foods, poor in nutrients and reach in high energy density (fats, sugars, full cream milk, preserves, potatoes and cereals, meat products) [25, 26]; on the other hand, it has been observed that the father's educational level is directly associated with sports activities in schoolchildren .
In conclusion, we can state that, beyond the genetic predisposition in which the role of parents is clearly identifiable, it is possible, at least in Tuscany Region, that the family's low educational level, both in terms of economic and cultural resources, prevalently of the father, favours the increase of weight in school-age children.
Furthermore, it can be hypothesized, certainly after additional analyses, that parents' obesity and family SES can be utilized as potential predictors for a child becoming obese and remaining so over time.
Following the previous considerations We would like to point out that the target population to be firstly involved in health promotion and education programs should be the families with a low educational level.