The key findings of this study were that the type of fat in a high fat meal differentially influenced levels of the redox sensitive transcription factor NF-κB and the soluble adhesion molecule ICAM-1 in overweight and obese individuals. The observation in our study that a meal containing a substantial dose of n-3FA (DHA +EPA) led to higher levels of NF-κB than a meal high in saturated fat is intriguing since generally epidemiological and in vitro studies support an anti-inflammatory effect of these fats . For example, pre-exposure to n-3FA reduced pro-inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells . However, other in vitro studies have reported that exposure to EPA increases or prolongs cell-stimulated NF-κB activation [28, 29] It is not necessarily surprising that the acute responses to n-3FA are different than to chronic ingestion because repeated supplementation allows for the incorporation of n-3FA into cell membranes. n-3FA partially replace arachidonic acid and result in the production of the less prothrombic and inflammatory n-3FA-derived metabolites than those produced from arachidonic acid [11, 30]. Cell exposure after acute ingestion is likely too brief to result in substantial membrane incorporation. Thus, the targets are more likely rapid reactors such as transcriptional factors. NF-κB is a redox sensitive transcription factor that regulates the gene expression of many inflammatory proteins and has recently been shown to contribute to endothelial dysfunction in overweight and obese adults .
Interestingly, while the activation of NF-κB is considered a pro-inflammatory signal, we did not observe a subsequent increase in circulating inflammatory marker concentration following the high n-3FA meal (O3FA). Aljada et al  observed an increase in nuclear NF-κB binding in PBMC as well as expression of enzymes that activate this transcriptional factor within an hour of ingestion of a mixed meal. This was followed by a 28% increase in plasma CRP 3 h after the meal but no change in sICAM. The lack of association between upregulation of NF-κB by O3FA and inflammatory proteins in our study may be related to an insufficient duration of assessment or lack of measurement of other important transcriptional factors (e.g. AP1) or inflammatory factors (e.g. IL-6). For example, an increase in ICAM-1 following a butter-rich meal was not detected until 9 h postprandial , and another study showed postprandial effects at the mRNA level . Evidence that other transcriptional factors may be affected by fatty acids was provided by a study demonstrating that the saturated fat-induced IL-6 release from cultured cells was independent of the NF-κB pathway .
Few clinical trials have examined the acute inflammatory and signaling responses to different fatty acids in humans. Similar to our study, Bellido et al  reported that a high fat meal containing polyunsaturated fats increased NF-κB. However, unlike our study; they noted the same effect 3 h after ingestion of a high saturated fat meal. It is possible that differences in fat sources played a role, as they used butter as the saturated fat source, while we used palm oil. Butter contains substantial amounts of medium chain fatty acids and half the proportion of palmitate as palm oil. This difference in palmitate content of the fats could help explain differences in results since in vitro studies have shown that lower levels of palmitic acid induce activation but higher levels can result in suppression of NF-κB .
The discrepancy between the view of n-3FA as anti-inflammatory [34, 35] and our observed increase in NF-κB following acute n-3FA could be related to an adaptive effect that occurs with repeated exposure to n-3FA. It is possible that acute increases in NF-κB following n-3FA consumption are transient and occur when the individual is relatively naïve to n-3FA (low habitual dietary intake). Acute activation of NF-κB in this situation could serve to upregulate antioxidant status over time  and buffer sensitivity to inflammatory stimuli. This is similar to the effects of acute bouts of exercise which are shown by some studies to acutely increase inflammation and oxidative stress, but chronically reduce systemic inflammation . Future research into the mechanisms by which the high n-3FA meal increased NF-κB acutely and whether this response changes over time with repeated ingestion is necessary to better understand the health effects of dietary n-3FA.
Chronic ingestion of n-3FA has been reported to increase indicators of oxidative stress in some studies [38, 39] but not others [40, 41]. Few studies have evaluated the effects of acute ingestion of n-3FA on oxidative stress but the presence of many double bonds susceptible to oxidation theoretically provides a rationale for increased acute oxidative stress. Hall et al  observed a 48% increase in plasma 8-epi 6 h following ingestion of high fat meal containing 5 g of n-3FA. Plasma concentration of this indicator of lipid peroxidation did not significantly increase following our high n-3FA meal but the average level tended to rise at 4 h postprandial. It is possible that our sampling period or our lower dose of n-3FA were insufficient to detect a change in this marker of oxidative stress.
ICAM-1 is constitutively expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and its release into the blood increases in response to inflammatory stress . Our study supports the observed increase in ICAM-1 following acute saturated fat ingestion by lean individuals consuming a meal high in butter  and another report of lower postprandial ICAM-1 (AUC) for an olive oil meal compared to a higher saturated fat meal . Chronic consumption may also influence postprandial response to these fats as a high monounsaturated fat diet for 12 weeks prior to an acute monounsaturated fat challenge had a favorable effect on postprandial ICAM-1 levels compared to 12 weeks of a higher saturated fat diet prior to a high saturated fat meal in metabolic syndrome patients . Although the predictive role of ICAM-1 in CVD risk is unclear, it has been associated with future myocardial infarction risk , thus, the mechanism and implications of a postprandial increase in ICAM-1 deserve further study.
In regards to postprandial effects of high fat meals on triglyceride (TG) levels, our findings are contrary to Zampelas et al who showed that a meal high in fish oil reduced postprandial TG . On the other hand, Jackson et al did not show differences in acute postprandial TG levels following an n-3FA rich meal in comparison to other fats . Clearly, there is insufficient evidence in this area; and our results add to the little information available regarding the acute effects of n-3FA on postprandial TG. Interestingly, we also noted lower levels of postprandial TG following SFA compared to MFA. This is in line with Pacheco et al  who also noted lower TG over an 8 h period following a high palmitic sunflower oil meal compared to an olive oil meal.
One criticism of our study could be a relatively small number of subjects. However, a number of other studies reporting postprandial inflammatory response differences among different meals used a similar sample size [20, 21, 24], and since all subjects served as their own controls, variability between treatments was minimized. It is unlikely that testing more similar subjects would provide a different result for those factors that showed almost parallel responses following meals (e.g. VCAM-1, CRP). We did, however, calculate the number of subjects that would be necessary to achieve statistical difference between meal trials with 80% power for TNF-α and 8 epi. A total of 359 and 74 subjects would have been needed to allow determination that the trials caused differential responses (area under the curve) in TNF-α and 8 epi, respectively. This was not feasible and suggests that any difference in effect of the fats on these variables is very modest, if it exists at all, and that the variability in the measures is substantial. It is recommended that future studies including these measures attempt to reduce variability by choosing subjects with similar baseline inflammatory markers to attempt to address this. Our results may also only be applicable to overweight and obese individuals, although this is quite a large proportion of the population.
Overall, consumption of a high fat meal in our overweight subjects resulted in mixed effects on inflammatory markers, most of which were not robust. While some studies have shown that high fat meals lead to acute increases in some markers of inflammation and oxidative stress [19, 49], others report inconsistent responses [6, 50, 51]. It is possible that a longer sampling period or measurement of gene expression and other gene products that may be more responsive to postprandial stresses was needed. For example, one lab reported significant increases in mRNA for TNF-α , transcriptional factors (AP-1, Egr-1), and matrix metalloproteinases  following acute glucose ingestion and another reported increased IL-6 mRNA following high fat meals . In addition, studies reporting robust inflammatory responses to meals typically used subjects with insulin resistance , diabetes [19, 20], or elevated baseline inflammation . Our subjects may have been too healthy to trigger a major inflammatory state following the meals.